Portrait of Frank, the protagonist from 'The Crank,' standing in front of the futuristic spaceship SS Perseverance. Frank is a middle-aged man with a stern expression, short graying hair, and wearing a utilitarian jumpsuit. The background features the lush green parks and high-tech amenities of the spaceship's interior.

Creating a Universe: World-Building in ‘The Crank’

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In the realm of science fiction, world-building is an essential aspect that can make or break a story. Andrew Gibson, author of “The Crank,” places world-building at the center of his narrative, creating a universe that not only serves as the backdrop but also influences the narrative and character development profoundly. This article explores the meticulous process Gibson undertook to build the setting for “The Crank,” focusing on the spaceship SS Perseverance and its systems, and how this setting shapes the story and its characters.

Conceptualizing the SS Perseverance

The SS Perseverance is not just a vessel for space travel; it is a microcosm of human society, encapsulated within a giant spinning wheel designed to simulate gravity. The initial idea was to create a spaceship that operated like an ancient ocean liner on steroids, providing a sense of luxury and normalcy while floating through the void of space. This concept allowed Gibson to explore themes of confinement, monotony, and the human need for routine and purpose.

The Structure and Design

The spaceship’s design is utilitarian and almost brutalist, a giant grey metal toaster nearly a mile long and half a mile high. It contrasts starkly with the luxurious and sometimes tacky interior meant to appeal to passengers. The ring of the ship spins to create artificial gravity, and within this ring lies a meticulously designed world complete with restaurants, a shopping mall, parks, and even simulated weather.

  1. The Ring and Gravity Simulation: The spinning ring of the SS Perseverance is crucial for maintaining artificial gravity. This aspect of the ship’s design is inspired by real-life concepts of space habitats, like the O’Neill cylinder. The technical details of how gravity is simulated—by spinning the wheel to create centrifugal force—add a layer of realism to the setting.
  2. The Interior Design: The interior of the ship is designed to keep passengers entertained and sane during the long journey. With 32 restaurants, a city-block-sized shopping mall, and various recreational facilities, the ship mirrors the amenities of a terrestrial city but with an art-deco aesthetic that slightly misses the mark, creating an uncanny valley of style and taste.
  3. The Toaster: The term “toaster” is used humorously by the characters to describe the external design of the ship. This utilitarian approach contrasts with the human tendency to design spacecraft to appear aerodynamic, influenced by classic science fiction designs.

Systems and Daily Life on Board

The systems within the SS Perseverance are as complex as they are essential. From the artificial intelligence (AI) known as Bostrom to the food replicators, every system is designed to maintain the illusion of normalcy and comfort while addressing the unique challenges of space travel.

Bostrom: The AI Overlord

Bostrom is the AI system that controls almost every aspect of life on the SS Perseverance. Named after philosopher Nick Bostrom, who is known for his work on AI and its potential future impact, Bostrom the AI manages everything from gravity simulation to food replication. It embodies the tension between human ingenuity and reliance on technology.

  1. AI-Controlled Dreamscape: Bostrom influences the crew’s and passengers’ dreams, merging individual dreamscapes with collective narratives. This control over the subconscious adds a psychological layer to the story, exploring themes of free will and reality.
  2. Health and Nutrition: The AI monitors health vitals, controls calorie intake, and even flavors the food replicated on board. This ensures physical well-being but also imposes a form of control that some characters, like Frank, find oppressive.
  3. Nanotech Enhancements: Bostrom’s reach extends to the nanotech devices implanted in the crew, enhancing their physical abilities and ensuring compliance. This technological augmentation is a double-edged sword, offering both incredible benefits and potential for control.

The Food Replicators

Food replication technology is a cornerstone of life aboard the SS Perseverance. It addresses one of the most significant challenges of long-term space travel: food quality and variety. Bostrom’s replicators can produce any food with the desired taste and texture, but the process of creating these meals—and the AI’s control over dietary habits—introduces an element of artificiality and dependence.

Recreational and Psychological Systems

To maintain morale during the 486-day journey, the ship offers a variety of recreational activities. The enforced cardiovascular exercise, parks, and entertainment facilities all serve to keep the passengers physically and mentally fit, but they also highlight the artificiality and monotony of life aboard the ship.

Shaping Narrative and Character Development

The meticulously crafted setting of the SS Perseverance is not just a backdrop but a catalyst for narrative and character development. The confined, controlled environment influences the characters’ actions, thoughts, and relationships, shaping the overall story.

Frank: The Crank

Frank, the protagonist, is a character shaped by his environment. His disdain for the AI, his meticulous nature, and his preference for tangible, mechanical hobbies like constructing cuckoo clocks all stem from his struggle against the artificiality and control of the SS Perseverance. His nickname, “The Crank,” reflects both his personality and his resistance to the AI’s pervasive influence.

Interpersonal Dynamics

The relationships aboard the SS Perseverance are intensified by the confined space and the constant surveillance of the AI. Frank’s interactions with other characters, such as his reluctant conversations with Jefferson and his complex relationship with Jennifer, are colored by the artificial setting and the underlying tension of AI control.

Psychological Themes

The psychological impact of the controlled environment is a recurring theme. Characters grapple with their sense of self and autonomy in a world where their dreams, health, and even food are controlled by an omnipresent AI. This struggle is central to the narrative, driving character development and plot progression.


World-building in “The Crank” involved creating a detailed, immersive setting that serves as more than just a backdrop. The SS Perseverance, with its intricate systems and artificial environment, shapes the narrative and character development in profound ways. By exploring themes of control, artificiality, and resistance, the setting becomes a character in its own right, influencing the story at every turn. Andrew Gibson aimed to create a compelling, thought-provoking world that challenges both the characters and the readers to consider the implications of advanced technology and artificial intelligence on human life.

Historical timeline illustrating key technological advancements that replaced jobs, featuring images from the Industrial Revolution's mechanized loom, early assembly lines, computers, and modern AI robots. Background includes factories, computer servers, and robotic arms, symbolizing different eras of technological progress.

The History of Technology Replacing Jobs

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Early Mechanization and the Industrial Revolution

The history of technology replacing jobs dates back to the early days of mechanization. The Industrial Revolution, which began in the late 18th century, marked a significant turning point. Key inventions like the spinning jenny, the power loom, and the steam engine revolutionized manufacturing processes. These innovations drastically increased production capacity but also displaced many manual laborers, particularly in the textile industry. Artisans and craftsmen who once relied on hand tools found themselves competing with machines that could produce goods faster and more efficiently.

The Rise of Automation in the 20th Century

The 20th century saw further advancements in technology that continued to impact employment. The introduction of assembly lines, pioneered by Henry Ford, transformed the automobile industry. While this innovation significantly boosted productivity and lowered costs, it also reduced the need for skilled labor. Workers became cogs in a machine, performing repetitive tasks rather than crafting entire products.

In the latter half of the century, the advent of computers and robotics introduced a new wave of automation. Industrial robots began to take over tasks in manufacturing, such as welding and assembly, that were previously performed by humans. This trend extended beyond manufacturing, affecting sectors like agriculture, where automated machinery replaced many farming jobs, and the service industry, where computer systems started to handle administrative and clerical work.

The Digital Revolution and the Internet Age

The digital revolution, marked by the proliferation of personal computers and the internet, further transformed the job landscape. The rise of software applications and online platforms automated numerous tasks that once required human intervention. For instance, bookkeeping and data entry jobs declined as software programs became more sophisticated.

E-commerce platforms like Amazon and digital services like online banking reshaped retail and financial sectors, leading to the closure of many brick-and-mortar stores and traditional bank branches. This shift caused significant job losses in retail and banking while creating new opportunities in tech and logistics.

Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Work

In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning have pushed the boundaries of automation even further. AI algorithms can now perform tasks that require cognitive skills, such as language translation, medical diagnosis, and even legal analysis. Self-driving vehicles, powered by AI, threaten to displace jobs in transportation, including truck drivers and taxi operators.

The potential for AI to replace jobs extends to creative fields as well. AI-generated art, music, and writing are becoming increasingly sophisticated, challenging the notion that creative work is immune to automation.

The Impact on Employment and Society

The replacement of jobs by technology has had profound social and economic impacts. On one hand, it has led to increased productivity, lower costs, and the creation of new industries and job categories. On the other hand, it has caused job displacement, economic inequality, and social disruption.

Historically, technological advancements have eventually led to the creation of more jobs than they destroyed, often in entirely new fields. However, the transition period can be challenging for workers who need to acquire new skills and adapt to changing job markets.

Preparing for the Future

As technology continues to evolve, it is crucial for societies to proactively address the challenges of job displacement. This includes investing in education and training programs to equip workers with the skills needed for future jobs, implementing social safety nets to support displaced workers, and fostering a culture of lifelong learning.

Policymakers, businesses, and educational institutions must collaborate to ensure that the benefits of technological advancements are broadly shared and that the workforce is prepared for the jobs of the future.


The history of technology replacing jobs is a testament to human ingenuity and adaptability. While technological advancements have consistently disrupted labor markets, they have also paved the way for new opportunities and improved living standards. By understanding this history, we can better navigate the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead in the age of artificial intelligence and beyond.

Collage showing the evolution of technology and culture, featuring historical inventions like the printing press and elements from the industrial revolution, alongside modern digital devices such as smartphones and virtual reality headsets. The image also includes diverse cultural symbols like traditional costumes, musical instruments, and architectural landmarks, illustrating the transformative impact of technology on human cultures and societies, with a harmonious blend of historical and modern elements.

Cultural Evolution: How Technology is Shaping Human Societies

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In the grand tapestry of human history, the threads of technology and culture have been inextricably woven together, each influencing and reshaping the other. This article delves into the concept of cultural evolution, particularly in the context of modern technological advancements. It’s a journey through the ways technology has become more than just a tool, evolving into a transformative force that continually reshapes human societies and cultural practices. From the historical milestones that defined earlier epochs to the digital revolutions shaping our current world, this exploration seeks to uncover how technological changes have perennially altered human lifestyles, social structures, and cultural norms. At its core, this examination is about understanding technology not just as a series of inventions but as a dynamic catalyst for cultural metamorphosis.

Historical Perspective

The interplay between technology and culture is not a new phenomenon. Throughout history, key technological milestones, like the printing press and the industrial revolution, have significantly impacted human societies. The printing press, for example, revolutionized the way information was disseminated, leading to a surge in literacy and a shift in cultural dynamics. Similarly, the industrial revolution brought about significant changes in work practices, urbanization, and social structures. These historical examples serve as a foundation for understanding how technological advancements have always been a cornerstone in shaping and reshaping cultural landscapes. They demonstrate the profound and often irreversible impacts that technology can have on the way humans live, interact, and view the world.

The Digital Age and Cultural Transformation

The advent of the digital age marked a seismic shift in the relationship between technology and culture. The proliferation of the internet, smartphones, and social media has revolutionized communication, information dissemination, and global connectivity. This section will delve into specific case studies, such as the transformation of the educational system through e-learning platforms and the evolution of the entertainment industry with streaming services. These examples illustrate the depth of cultural shifts brought about by digital technology, reshaping not only how we access information and entertainment but also how we perceive and interact with the world around us.

The Blurring of Physical and Digital Realities

Emerging technologies like virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are creating new cultural experiences and practices that blur the lines between physical and digital realities. This section will explore the impact of these technologies on various facets of life, including art, entertainment, and human interaction. By immersing individuals in entirely new worlds or augmenting their physical environment with digital information, VR and AR are not just technological advancements but are also rewriting the rules of cultural engagement and experience. This represents a significant shift in how humans perceive reality and interact with both the physical and digital worlds.

The Role of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics

Artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics are not just the realms of science fiction; they are rapidly becoming integral parts of our everyday lives. This section will offer insights into how these technologies are influencing job markets, healthcare, and daily routines. Beyond the practical applications, there are significant cultural implications and ethical considerations to address, such as the cultural adaptations required to accommodate AI-driven automation and decision-making processes. This discussion will not only highlight the technological advancements but also provoke thought about the cultural shifts that accompany these innovations.

Technology and Cultural Identity

In an era of global connectivity, technology plays a pivotal role in shaping cultural identity. This section will analyze how technology influences the formation and expression of cultural identity in the modern world, examining both the opportunities and challenges it presents. It will explore the impact of global connectivity on the preservation or erosion of local and indigenous cultures, discussing the delicate balance between embracing technological advancements and maintaining cultural heritage.

The Future of Human Societies in a Tech-Driven World

Looking towards the future, this section will speculate on potential technological advancements and the corresponding cultural shifts they might bring. It will ponder the future of human societies in a world increasingly driven by technology, discussing the importance of maintaining cultural diversity and heritage amidst technological unification. This forward-looking perspective aims to spark a conversation on how societies can guide technological development to enrich human culture rather than diminish it.

Challenges and Opportunities

The rapid pace of technological change presents both challenges and opportunities. This section will examine issues such as the digital divide, privacy concerns, and the spread of misinformation, highlighting the complexities that arise when technology intersects with culture. Simultaneously, it will discuss the opportunities technology presents for addressing cultural and social issues, suggesting ways in which technological advancements can be harnessed for the greater good.


In conclusion, the relationship between technology and cultural evolution is multifaceted and profound. This exploration has revealed how technology, far from being a mere tool, is a dynamic force that continually shapes and reshapes human societies and cultural practices. As we venture further into the digital age and beyond, it becomes increasingly important to understand and guide this relationship, ensuring that technological advancements enrich rather than diminish the tapestry of human culture.

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The image shows the Liberator, a fictional spaceship from the British science fiction television series "Blake's 7". The ship is depicted with its distinctive design featuring three protruding nacelles with rounded tips, a central spherical hub, and a rear section with what appears to be engine exhaust. The hull of the ship is silver and gray with black detailing, suggesting a metallic structure with advanced technology. A green glow emanates from the rear, indicating the ship's engines are active. The Liberator is set against a star-filled black space background, highlighting its role as a vessel navigating the vastness of space.

Unraveling the Enigma of the Liberator in “Blake’s 7”

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The Allure of Advanced Technology

The television series “Blake’s 7,” a cult classic of British science fiction, presented audiences with a vision of the future where freedom is a distant memory, and tyranny reigns supreme. Amidst this bleak outlook, a beacon of hope emerges in the form of the Liberator, an advanced spacecraft with capabilities far beyond human ken. Discovered by the series’ protagonist, Roj Blake, and his band of rebels, the Liberator is not just a vessel; it’s a character in its own right—a silent guardian and a mysterious ally against the oppressive Federation. Its sleek, white exterior and the formidable power it wields inspire awe and speculation from the first moment it graces the screen.

The Liberator’s design is not merely for aesthetics; it is a visual representation of its superiority. With a drive system that allows it to surpass the speeds of any Federation ship and a teleportation capability that offers tactical advantages, the Liberator is an unparalleled asset in Blake’s rebellion. The presence of Zen, its enigmatic artificial intelligence, further emphasizes the advanced nature of the ship. Zen’s ability to interact, understand, and even challenge the crew adds a layer of complexity to the narrative, posing philosophical questions about the nature of consciousness and the relationship between man and machine.

The Mysterious Origins of the Liberator

The origins of the Liberator are a tapestry of intrigue and speculation. Throughout the series, its backstory is pieced together like a cosmic puzzle, with each episode offering a fragment of understanding. The ship’s alien technology is not only advanced but also foreign in its philosophy, hinting at a civilization whose understanding of space, time, and technology far exceeds humanity’s. The Liberator’s creators remain unknown, an intentional choice by the creators of “Blake’s 7” that fuels endless debate and fascination among fans.

This strategic ambiguity allows the series to explore broader themes of discovery and the unknown. As the crew of the Liberator navigates both the cosmos and the complexities of their fight against the Federation, they also grapple with the ship’s silent history. The absence of its original crew raises questions about its past encounters and the fate that befell them, allowing the series to delve into darker, more existential territory. It’s a storytelling choice that resonates with the audience’s own sense of wonder and the human desire to explore and understand.

The Symbolism of the Liberator

In the world of “Blake’s 7,” the Liberator is more than a spaceship—it is a symbol of resistance. Its very existence is antithetical to the Federation’s control, making it a target as much as an asset. For Blake and his crew, the ship becomes a home, a sanctuary in the vastness of space where they can plan their strategies and foster their hopes. The Liberator’s narrative significance extends beyond its technological wonders; it represents the idea that there are forces in the universe that can challenge and perhaps overthrow tyranny.

The ship’s technological marvels are not just plot devices; they are metaphors for the power of innovation and the spirit of rebellion. Its ability to evade and outmaneuver the Federation’s forces becomes a parallel for the crew’s own cunning and resilience. Each victory achieved with the Liberator’s aid reinforces the message that no regime is invincible, that with the right tools and determination, change is possible.

The Legacy of the Liberator

The destruction of the Liberator in the series’ third season serves as a poignant reminder of the stakes at play. Its loss is not just a tactical blow to the characters; it is an emotional one to the audience. The Liberator’s end is a narrative choice that cements its legacy, turning it from a mere plot element into a symbol of the costs of rebellion. The shock and sorrow felt by the characters are shared by viewers, who had come to see the ship as a character in its own right.

The legacy of the Liberator endures in the hearts of fans and in the annals of science fiction history. As a piece of storytelling, it is a testament to the power of narrative to imbue inanimate objects with life and meaning. In discussions and fan theories, the Liberator lives on, its mysteries still compelling, its memory still inspiring. It stands as a reminder that sometimes, the most enduring characters are not individuals but the vessels that carry them on their journeys.

In the vast universe of science fiction, “Blake’s 7” and the Liberator occupy a unique place. They remind us that the human spirit, coupled with the marvels of technology, can open the stars to us. But they also caution us that the path to freedom is fraught with loss and sacrifice. The story of the Liberator is not just one of battles and adventures; it is a narrative about humanity’s relentless pursuit of liberty and the complexities that this pursuit entails.

The Liberator, with its enigmatic past and powerful presence, continues to captivate and provoke thought, a hallmark of great science fiction and a cornerstone of “Blake’s 7.” In exploring the ship’s depths, we are invited to consider our own place in the universe and the lengths we are willing to go to for our freedoms. It’s a journey that, decades after the show’s conclusion, still resonates with timeless relevance.

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